Healthcare facilities need to provide a sufficient number of parking spaces for patients, staff, service traffic, and the public. At a minimum, parking standards or requirements developed by local authorities having jurisdiction should be consulted since these will reflect the availability of public transportation, public parking facilities, or other alternatives. This article provides some general rules-of-thumb for estimating the number of parking spaces for patients being admitted/discharged, visitors to inpatient nursing units, hospital staff, outpatients, and emergency patients and their escorts.
Sometimes a preliminary space estimate is needed to evaluate location alternatives, conduct a feasibility study, or develop a preliminary cost estimate for construction or renovation. Once the number of procedure rooms is determined, an estimate of the total footprint required for the diagnostic imaging suite can be made using the range of DGSF (DGSM) per procedure room shown in this post.
Imaging and procedure rooms fall into several size categories — small procedure room, typical imaging room, or larger specialty imaging room — and diagnostic equipment has generally become more compact over the last decade. For example, equipment used for chest X-rays, mammography, ultrasound, and pulmonary and neurodiagnostic testing is compact and commonly mobile, requiring only a small procedure room. Most general radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment can be accommodated in a typical imaging room. Computed tomography (CT) units are also becoming more compact but require a contiguous control room. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and interventional procedure suites require a larger footprint including the procedure room, control room, and adjacent space for equipment components. Imaging equipment may also require lead shielding, enhanced floor loading capacity, and other unique design features.
Aside from the economies of scale achieved by larger surgical suites, the size and specialization of the individual operating rooms (ORs) and the proportion of outpatients are the two most significant factors that contribute to the overall size of the space. Sometimes a preliminary space estimate is needed to evaluate location alternatives, conduct a feasibility study, or develop a preliminary cost estimate for construction or renovation. Once the number of operating rooms (ORs) is determined, an estimate of the total footprint required for the surgical suite can be made using the rules-of-thumb in this post.
The space in gross square feet or meters required to accommodate parking lots and structures on a healthcare campus can be substantial. When it comes to staff parking, the space is greater than that required for his or her office. The guidelines shown below can be used for preliminary space estimates. Carl Walker — a parking specialty firm — cites an average size of 334 gross square feet (GSF) or 31.0 gross square meters (GSM) per parking space and a median construction cost of $20,450 USD per space based on their database of hundreds of completed parking structures (Cudney 2018).
The space required for outpatient physical and occupational therapy (PT/OT) services should be directly related to the patient workload. However, due to the variation in hours of operation and difficulties in recruiting PT/OT staff, preliminary space estimates are generally based on the expected number of therapists on the primary shift.